Protectival - The Active Shield

Table of Herbal Effects with References 

  Plant Name Anti-Cancer
(in vitro, in vivo)
Immune System Chemo Side
huang-Qi Huang Qi
Astragalus membranaceus
Myeloid tumors [2]
T cells [3-5]; Macrophages [2, 6-8]
B cells [5, 6, 9]
LAK cells [10, 11]
Anti-inflammatory [12, 13] General [6, 9, 14]
Immune system [5, 6, 15, 16] Heart [17-19]
Liver [20]
Renal [21]
Anti-mutagenic [22]
bai-zhu Bai Zhu
Atractylodes macrocephala
Leukemia & lymphoma [23] Anti-allergic [24]  
chen-pi Chen Pi
Citrus reticulata
Colon [25]
Gastric [26]
Anti-inflammatory [27-29] Cell protection [30]
bei-sha-shen Bei Sha Shen
Glehnia littoralis
  Anti-inflammatory [32, 33]  
nu-zhen-zi Nu Zhen Zi
Ligustrum lucidum
Glioma [34] T cells [4]
Anti-inflammatory [35] Macrophages [7]
Anti-mutagenic [22]
gou-qi-zi Gou Qi Zi
Lycium chinense
    Liver [36, 37]
Bone marrow [38]
ji-xue-teng Ji Xue Teng
Milletia reticulata
  Anti-inflammatory [39]  
bei-hue-she-she-cao Bai Hua She She Cao
Oldenlandia diffusa
Melanoma [40]
Renal cell carcinoma [41]
T cells [42]
Anti-inflammatory [43]
Macrophages [41, 44]
General [9]
Anti-mutagenic [22, 45, 46]
mei-men-dong Mai Men Dong
Ophiopogon japonicus
  Anti-inflammatory [48] Adaptogens: Strength, Stamina [49]
bei-shao Bai Shao
Paeonia lactiflora
Bladder cancer in vivo [51]    
fu-ling Fu Ling
Poria cocos
  Anti-inflammatory [52, 53]
Immuno-stimulatory [54]
xia-ku-cao Xia Ku Cao
Prunella vulgaris
NSCLC [55, 56]
(lung metastasis) [57]
Anti-inflammatory [58, 59]
Macrophages [60]
ban-zhi-lian Ban Zhi Lian
Scutellaria barbata
Breast cancer [61-63]Prostate cancer prevention [64]
Renal cell carcinoma [41]
Macrophages [41] Anti-mutagenic [22, 45, 46]



1. Sun JY, Yang H, Miao S, Li JP, Wang SW, Zhu MZ, Xie YH, Wang JB, Liu Z, Yang Q: Suppressive effects of swainsonine on C6 glioma cell in vitro and in vivo. Phytomedicine 2009, 16(11):1070-1074.
2. Cho WC, Leung KN: In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceus. Cancer Lett 2007, 252(1):43-54.
3. Brush J, Mendenhall E, Guggenheim A, Chan T, Connelly E, Soumyanath A, Buresh R, Barrett R, Zwickey H: The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans. Phytother Res 2006, 20(8):687-695.
4. Sun Y, Hersh EM, Talpaz M, Lee SL, Wong W, Loo TL, Mavligit GM: Immune restoration and/or augmentation of local graft versus host reaction by traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. Cancer 1983, 52(1):70-73.
5. Zhao KS, Mancini C, Doria G: Enhancement of the immune response in mice by Astragalus membranaceus extracts. Immunopharmacology 1990, 20(3):225-233.
6. Cho WC, Leung KN: In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J Ethnopharmacol 2007, 113(1):132-141.
7. Rittenhouse JR, Lui PD, Lau BH: Chinese medicinal herbs reverse macrophage suppression induced by urological tumors. J Urol 1991, 146(2):486-490.
8. Xu HD, You CG, Zhang RL, Gao P, Wang ZR: Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides and astragalosides on the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages. J Int Med Res 2007, 35(1):84-90.
9. Yoshida Y, Wang MQ, Liu JN, Shan BE, Yamashita U: Immunomodulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs and Oldenlandia diffusa in particular. Int J Immunopharmacol 1997, 19(7):359-370.
10. Chu DT, Lepe-Zuniga J, Wong WL, LaPushin R, Mavligit GM: Fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb, potentiates LAK cell cytotoxicity generated by a low dose of recombinant interleukin-2. J Clin Lab Immunol 1988, 26(4):183-187.
11. Wang Y, Qian XJ, Hadley HR, Lau BH: Phytochemicals potentiate interleukin-2 generated lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxicity against murine renal cell carcinoma. Mol Biother 1992, 4(3):143-146.
12. Clement-Kruzel S, Hwang SA, Kruzel MC, Dasgupta A, Actor JK: Immune modulation of macrophage pro-inflammatory response by goldenseal and Astragalus extracts. J Med Food 2008, 11(3):493-498.
13. Ryu M, Kim EH, Chun M, Kang S, Shim B, Yu YB, Jeong G, Lee JS: Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk. J Ethnopharmacol 2008, 115(2):184-193.
14. Zhu XL, Zhu BD: Mechanisms by which Astragalus membranaceus injection regulates hematopoiesis in myelosuppressed mice. Phytother Res 2007, 21(7):663-667.
15. Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM: Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs. II. Reversal of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression by administration of fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vivo. J Clin Lab Immunol 1988, 25(3):125-129.
16. Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM: Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs. I. Immune restoration of local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reaction in cancer patients by fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vitro. J Clin Lab Immunol 1988, 25(3):119-123.
17. Luo Z, Zhong L, Han X, Wang H, Zhong J, Xuan Z: Astragalus membranaceus prevents daunorubicin-induced apoptosis of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes: role of free radical effect of Astragalus membranaceus on daunorubicin cardiotoxicity. Phytother Res 2009, 23(6):761-767.
18. Li Y, Liu X, Xue SZ: Antidotal effect of glucoside extracted from Astragalus membranaceus on dimethoate intoxication in guinea pigs. Med Lav 1998, 89 Suppl 2:S136-141.
19. Zhang L, Yang Y, Wang Y, Gao X: Astragalus membranaceus extract promotes neovascularisation by VEGF pathway in rat model of ischemic injury. Pharmazie, 66(2):144-1.
20. Cui R, He J, Wang B, Zhang F, Chen G, Yin S, Shen H: Suppressive effect of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge on chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2003, 51(1):75-80.
21. Sheng BW, Chen XF, Zhao J, He DL, Nan XY: Astragalus membranaceus reduces free radical-mediated injury to renal tubules in rabbits receiving high-energy shock waves. Chin Med J (Engl) 2005, 118(1):43-49.
22. Wong BY, Lau BH, Tadi PP, Teel RW: Chinese medicinal herbs modulate mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1. Mutat Res 1992, 279(3):209-216.
23. Huang HL, Chen CC, Yeh CY, Huang RL: Reactive oxygen species mediation of baizhu-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2005, 97(1):21-29.
24. Kim SH, Jung HN, Lee KY, Kim J, Lee JC, Jang YS: Suppression of Th2-type immune response-mediated allergic diarrhea following oral administration of traditional Korean medicine: Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2005, 27(2):331-343.
25. Kang SA, Park HJ, Kim MJ, Lee SY, Han SW, Leem KH: Citri Reticulatae Viride Pericarpium extract induced apoptosis in SNU-C4, human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2005, 97(2):231-235.
26. Kim MJ, Park HJ, Hong MS, Park HJ, Kim MS, Leem KH, Kim JB, Kim YJ, Kim HK: Citrus Reticulata blanco induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells SNU-668. Nutr Cancer 2005, 51(1):78-82.
27. Ho SC, Lin CC: Investigation of heat treating conditions for enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) peels. J Agric Food Chem 2008, 56(17):7976-7982.
28. Jung KH, Ha E, Kim MJ, Won HJ, Zheng LT, Kim HK, Hong SJ, Chung JH, Yim SV: Suppressive effects of nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by Citrus reticulata extract in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2007, 45(8):1545-15.
29. Zhou XM, Huang MM, He CC, Li JX: Inhibitory effects of citrus extracts on the experimental pulmonary fibrosis. J Ethnopharmacol 2009, 126(1):143-148.
30. Xu GH, Chen JC, Liu DH, Zhang YH, Jiang P, Ye XQ: Minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract by hot water. J Food Sci 2008, 73(1):C11-18.
31. Xu RH, Peng XE, Chen GZ, Chen GL: Effects of cordyceps sinensis on natural killer activity and colony formation of B16 melanoma. Chin Med J (Engl) 1992, 105(2):97-101.
32. Yoon T, Cheon MS, Lee AY, Lee do Y, Moon BC, Chun JM, Choo BK, Kim HK: Anti-inflammatory activity of methylene chloride fraction from Glehnia littoralis extract via suppression of NF-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. J Pharmacol Sci 2010, 112(1):46-55.
33. Yoon T, Lee do Y, Lee AY, Choi G, Choo BK, Kim HK: Anti-inflammatory effects of Glehnia littoralis extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2010, 32(4):663-670.
34. Jeong JC, Kim JW, Kwon CH, Kim TH, Kim YK: Fructus ligustri lucidi extracts induce human glioma cell death through regulation of Akt/mTOR pathway in vitro and reduce glioma tumor growth in U87MG xenograft mouse model. Phytother Res 2011, 25(3):429-434.
35. An HJ, Jeong HJ, Um JY, Park YJ, Park RK, Kim EC, Na HJ, Shin TY, Kim HM, Hong SH: Fructus Ligustrum lucidi inhibits inflammatory mediator release through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB in mouse peritoneal macrophages. J Pharm Pharmacol 2007, 59(9):1279-1285.
36. Ha KT, Yoon SJ, Choi DY, Kim DW, Kim JK, Kim CH: Protective effect of Lycium chinense fruit on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 2005, 96(3):529-535.
37. Zhang R, Kang KA, Piao MJ, Kim KC, Kim AD, Chae S, Park JS, Youn UJ, Hyun JW: Cytoprotective effect of the fruits of Lycium chinense Miller against oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 2010, 130(2):299-306.
38. Hsu HY, Yang JJ, Ho YH, Lin CC: Difference in the effects of radioprotection between aerial and root parts of Lycium chinense. J Ethnopharmacol 1999, 64(2):101-108.
39. Hsu CC, Hsu CL, Tsai SE, Fu TY, Yen GC: Protective effect of Millettia reticulata Benth against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage and inflammatory action in rats. J Med Food 2009, 12(4):821-828.
40. Gupta S, Zhang D, Yi J, Shao J: Anticancer activities of Oldenlandia diffusa. J Herb Pharmacother 2004, 4(1):21-33.
41. Wong BY, Lau BH, Jia TY, Wan CP: Oldenlandia diffusa and Scutellaria barbata augment macrophage oxidative burst and inhibit tumor growth. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 1996, 11(1):51-56.
42. Shan BE, Yoshida Y, Sugiura T, Yamashita U: Stimulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs on human lymphocytes in vitro. Int J Immunopharmacol 1999, 21(3):149-159.
43. Kim SJ, Chung WS, Kim SS, Ko SG, Um JY: Antiinflammatory effect of Oldenlandia diffusa and its constituent, hentriacontane, through suppression of caspase-1 activation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Phytother Res 2011, 25(10):1537-1546.
44. Chung HS, Jeong HJ, Hong SH, Kim MS, Kim SJ, Song BK, Jeong IS, Lee EJ, Ahn JW, Baek SH et al: Induction of nitric oxide synthase by Oldenlandia diffusa in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Biol Pharm Bull 2002, 25(9):1142-1146.
45. Wong BY, Lau BH, Teel RW: Chinese medicinal herbs modulate mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol and benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide. Cancer Lett 1992, 62(2):123-131.
46. Wong BY, Lau BH, Yamasaki T, Teel RW: Inhibition of dexamethasone-induced cytochrome P4-mediated mutagenicity and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by Chinese medicinal herbs. Eur J Cancer Prev 1993, 2(4):351-356.
47. Song YH, Jeong SJ, Kwon HY, Kim B, Kim SH, Yoo DY: Ursolic acid from Oldenlandia diffusa induces apoptosis via activation of caspases and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Biol Pharm Bull, 35(7):1022-1028.
48. Kou J, Sun Y, Lin Y, Cheng Z, Zheng W, Yu B, Xu Q: Anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus and its two constituents. Biol Pharm Bull 2005, 28(7):1234-1238.
49. David Winston, Steven Maimes : book Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief .Bear & Co, Mar 22, 2007
. Wang Y, Yan T, Shen J, Guo H, Xiang X: Preventive effect of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharides on an autoallergic mouse model for Sjogren’s syndrome by regulating the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance. J Ethnopharmacol 2007, 114(2):246-253.
51. Ou TT, Wu CH, Hsu JD, Chyau CC, Lee HJ, Wang CJ: Paeonia lactiflora Pall inhibits bladder cancer growth involving phosphorylation of Chk2 in vitro and in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 2011, 135(1):162-172.
52. Fuchs SM, Heinemann C, Schliemann-Willers S, Hartl H, Fluhr JW, Elsner P: Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of Poria cocos in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced irritant contact dermatitis. Skin Res Technol 2006, 12(4):223-227.
53. Giner-Larza EM, Manez S, Giner-Pons RM, Carmen Recio M, Rios JL: On the anti-inflammatory and anti-phospholipase A(2) activity of extracts from lanostane-rich species. J Ethnopharmacol 2000, 73(1-2):61-69.
54. Yu SJ, Tseng J: Fu-Ling, a Chinese herbal drug, modulates cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood monocytes. Int J Immunopharmacol 1996, 18(1):37-44.
55. Feng L, Jia X, Zhu M, Chen Y, Shi F: Chemoprevention by Prunella vulgaris L. extract of non-small cell lung cancer via promoting apoptosis and regulating the cell cycle. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2010, 11(5):1355-1358.
56. Feng L, Jia XB, Jiang J, Zhu MM, Chen Y, Tan XB, Shi F: Combination of active components enhances the efficacy of Prunella in prevention and treatment of lung cancer. Molecules 2010, 15(11):7893-7906.
57. Choi JH, Han EH, Hwang YP, Choi JM, Choi CY, Chung YC, Seo JK, Jeong HG: Suppression of PMA-induced tumor cell invasion and metastasis by aqueous extract isolated from Prunella vulgaris via the inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent MMP-9 expression. Food Chem Toxicol 2010, 48(2):564-571.
58. Huang N, Hauck C, Yum MY, Rizshsky L, Widrlechner MP, McCoy JA, Murphy PA, Dixon PM, Nikolau BJ, Birt DF: Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris ethanol extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. J Agric Food Chem 2009, 57(22):10579-10589.
59. Zdarilova A, Svobodova A, Simanek V, Ulrichova J: Prunella vulgaris extract and rosmarinic acid suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced alteration in human gingival fibroblasts. Toxicol In Vitro 2009, 23(3):386-392.
60. Han EH, Choi JH, Hwang YP, Park HJ, Choi CY, Chung YC, Seo JK, Jeong HG: Immunostimulatory activity of aqueous extract isolated from Prunella vulgaris. Food Chem Toxicol 2009, 47(1):62-69.
61. Fong S, Shoemaker M, Cadaoas J, Lo A, Liao W, Tagliaferri M, Cohen I, Shtivelman E: Molecular mechanisms underlying selective cytotoxic activity of BZL101, an extract of Scutellaria barbata, towards breast cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther 2008, 7(4):577-586.
62. Klawitter J, Klawitter J, Gurshtein J, Corby K, Fong S, Tagliaferri M, Quattrochi L, Cohen I, Shtivelman E, Christians U: Bezielle (BZL101)-induced oxidative stress damage followed by redistribution of metabolic fluxes in breast cancer cells: a combined proteomic and metabolomic study. Int J Cancer 2011, 129(12):2945-2957.
63. Perez AT, Arun B, Tripathy D, Tagliaferri MA, Shaw HS, Kimmick GG, Cohen I, Shtivelman E, Caygill KA, Grady D et al: A phase 1B dose escalation trial of Scutellaria barbata (BZL101) for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010, 120(1):111-118.
64. Wong BY, Nguyen DL, Lin T, Wong HH, Cavalcante A, Greenberg NM, Hausted RP, Zheng J: Chinese medicinal herb Scutellaria barbata modulates apoptosis and cell survival in murine and human prostate cancer cells and tumor development in TRAMP mice. Eur J Cancer Prev 2009, 18(4):331-341.
65. Chen V, Staub RE, Baggett S, Chimmani R, Tagliaferri M, Cohen I, Shtivelman E: Identification and analysis of the active phytochemicals from the anti-cancer botanical extract Bezielle. PLoS One 2012, 7(1):e30107.